Histology-World!

 

 

 

Histology Glossary

 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


A band
Dark band seen in muscle which is made of the thick filaments

Acetylcholine
One of the neurotransmitters

Acidophilia
Property of tissues with an affinity for acidic dye

Acidophils
Cell type in the adenohypophysis with a propensity for acidic dyes

Acinar cell
Cell lining an acinus, such as cells in a pancreatic acini

Acinus
Sac-like cluster of secretory epithelial cells with a central lumen

Acoustic hair cell
Sensory cell within the organ of corti

Acrosome
Portion of a sperm which contains enzymes

Actin
A contractile protein that is very prevalent in muscle

Adenosine triphosphate
A molecule that stores chemical energy; often abbreviated as ATP

Adipocyte
Fat cell

Adipose cell
Fat cell

Adipose
Fatty

Adventitia
The outer connective tissue covering of an organ, vessel or other structure

Agranulocytes
Agranular leukocyte. Leukocytes without prominent granules; specifically lymphocytes and monocytes

Alpha cell
1. Pancreatic islet cell which secrete glucagon
2. Cell type in the anterior pituitary, also called acidophil

Alveolar cell
Cell of the pulmonary alveoli

Alveolar duct
Passageway which contains alveolar sacs

Alveolar sac
Region at the end of an alveolar duct; airspace

Alveolus
1. Microscopic sac in the lung
2. Spherical sac

Amacrine cells
Interneurons in the retina

Ameloblast
Cell which makes tooth enamel

Ampulla
A saccular swelling

Antrum
Fluid filled space surrounding follicle

Apocrine gland
A type of sweat gland found in the axilla, anogenital region, external auditory meatus and eyelid

APUD
Amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation

Argentaffin cells
Also called enterochromaffin cells; found in glands of the gastrointestinal tract; stain with silver salt

Argyrophilic cell
Small granule cell or dense core granule cell

Arrector pili
Smooth muscle associated with a hair follicle

Arteriole
Part of the arterial tree; a small artery with a diameter less than .5mm

Astrocyte
Star shaped cell seen in the central nervous systm; most abundant glial cell

Auerbach's plexus
Myenteric plexus; located in the muscle of the intestine between the outer longitudinal layer and inner circular layer

Axolemma
Plasma membrane of an axon

Axon
Single process seen in a neuron which conducts impulses away from the cell body

Axon hillock
The cone shaped region at the junction of the axon and cell body

Azurophilic granules
Granules in a neutrophil which contain peroxidase and lysosomal enzymes

B lymphocytes
Leukocytes involved in humoral immunity

Band cell
Immature neutrophil in which the nucleus has not yet become multilobulated

Barr body
Inactive, repressed X chromosome seen in the female

Basal body
Structure at the base of cilium or flagellum made of microtubules

Basal cell
Cell in the deepest layer of epithelium

Basal lamina
Thin sheet of protein underlying epithelium

Basement membrane
Thin sheet which cells rests upon

Basket cell
1. Cell in the cerebellar cortex
2. Myoepithelial cell

Basophil
1. Type of granulocyte with prominent basophilic granules
2. Glandular cell in the pituitary

Basophilia
1. An increase number of basophils in the peripheral circulation
2. Tissues property of staining with basic dyes

Beta cell
1. Pancreatic islet cell which secretes insulin
2. Cell type in the anterior pituitary, also called basophil

Betz cells
Pyramidal cells in the motor area of the brain

Bipolar neuron
Neuron with only two processes: an axon and a dendrite

Bowman's capsule
Portion of the uriniferous tubule; double layered portion surrounding the glomeruli

Bowman's membrane
The basement membrane of the corneal epithelium

Bronchiole
Small branch of the bronchial tree which contains no cartilage in the wall

Bruch's membrane
The inner layer of the choroid; also called lamina vitrea

Brunner's gland
Glands found in the submucosa of the duodenum which have an alkaline secretion

Brush border
Microvilli seen on the epithelial surface in the small intestine which significantly increases the absorptive surface area

Histology hint from Sarah Bellham: If you are studying histology or involved in health care, you need a medical dictionary. You may as well get one as early in your career as possible to maximize the benefit. I recommend: Stedman's Medical Dictionary or Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 30th Edition.