Histology-World!

 

 

 

Histology Testbank: Cartilage 3a

 

Instructions: For each histology question, pick the one best answer. This histology test bank is also useful for the histology questions on the USMLE (USMLE step 1).

1.
What is the connective tissue covering which surrounds cartilage?
a. Perimysium
b. Periosteum
c. Perichondrium
d. Perineurium
e. Endosteum

Answer: c

The perimysium is the connective tissue sheath around fascicles of muscle.

The periosteum is the connective tissue covering of a bone.

The perichondrium is the connective tissue which surrounds cartilage.

The perineurium is the covering of nerve fascicles.

The endosteum is the lining of the inner bone (the side which abuts the medullary cavity).

Note from Sarah Bellham: The prefix "peri" means around, such as in the word "perimeter". The prefix "endo" means within or inner, such as in "endosteum", "endocrine", "endoscope".

2.
Where does cartilage come from?
a. Ectoderm
b. Endoderm
c. Mesenchyme
d. Connective tissue
e. None of the above

Answer: c

Cartilage arises from mesenchyme.

3.
What is the mature cell in cartilage called?
a. Chondrocyte
b. Chondroblast
c. Osteocyte
d. Osteoclast
e. Bone lining cell

Answer: a

The mature cell in cartilage is a chondrocyte. It rests in a lacunae surrounded by matrix. A chondroblast is an immature cartilage cell which produces the cartilaginous matrix. An osteocyte is a mature bone cell. An osteoclast is a bone cell which is involved in resorption of bone. A bone lining cell is a resting osteoblast.

4.
Regarding the blood supply to cartilage:
a. Cartilage has minimal circulation
b. Cartilage has a duel circulation
c. Cartilage is highly vascular
d. Cartilage is avascular
e. There is nothing unique about the blood supply to cartilage

Answer: d

Cartilage is avascular. Nutrients reach cartilage by diffusion from the adjacent tissues.

5.
Which type of cartilage is characterized by the presence of thick bundles of collagen fibers?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

Answer: c

Hyaline cartilage is characterized by a glassy matrix.

Elastic cartilage has elastic fibers in the matrix.

Fibrocartilage has thick bundles of collagen fibers in the matrix.

All three types of cartilage are composed of chondrocytes residing in lacunae and a hydrous extracellular matrix. All three types of cartilage are avascular.

6.
What percent of the matrix of cartilage is water?
a. 0
b. 10-40
c. 40-60
d. 60-80
e. 80-100

Answer: d

The matrix of cartilage is 60-80% water.

7.
Which type of cartilage forms the epiphyseal growth plate?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

Answer: a

Hyaline cartilage forms the epiphyseal growth plate.

8.
What type of tissue makes up the rings of the trachea?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Fibrocartilage
c. Elastic cartilage
d. Both a and b
e. Both a and c

Answer: a

The rings of the trachea are composed of hyaline cartilage.

9.
What type of tissue makes up the epiglottis?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Fibrocartilage
c. Elastic cartilage
d. Both a and b
e. Both a and c

Answer: c

The epiglottis is part of the larynx. It is composed of elastic cartilage.

10.
Which type of cartilage is present in the temporomandibular joint?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

Answer: c

Fibrocartilage is present in the temporomandibular joint.

11.
What structure is called yellow cartilage?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. Compact bone
e. Spongy bone

Answer: b

Elastic cartilage is sometimes referred to as yellow cartilage. Fibrocartilage is sometimes referred to as white cartilage.