Histology-World!

 

 

 

Histology Testbank: Cells 2a

 

Instructions: For each histology question, pick the one best answer. This histology test bank is also useful for the histology questions on the USMLE (USMLE step 1).

1.
What are the folds on the inner mitochodrial membrane called?
a. Plasmalemma
b. Glycocalyx
c. Protoplasm
d. Cristae
e. Ground substance

Answer: d

The cell boundary is defined by the cell membrane or plasmalemma. Glycocalyx is a polysacchride that can be found on the outer surface of the cell membranes. Collectively, the cytoplasm and nucleus form the protoplasm of a cell. The folds on the inner mitochodrial membrane are called cristae. The cytoplasm that surrounds organelles is the cytoplasmic ground substance or cytosol.

2.
Which organelle is involved in lipid metabolism?
a. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
b. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
c. Lysosome
d. Golgi apparatus
e. Mitochondria

Answer: b

Endoplasmic reticulum is a system of tubules. If there are ribosomes on the tubules, it is termed "rough endoplasmic reticulum". Ribosomes produce proteins. When the ribosomes are attached to endoplasmic reticulum, the proteins produced by the ribosomes are exported. If there are no ribosomes on the endoplasmic reticulum, it is called "smooth endoplasmic reticulum". The role of smooth endoplasmic reticulum is lipid metabolism.

Lysosomes are membrane bound sacs of digestive enzymes. They are nicknamed "suicide sacs".

The Golgi apparatus are stacks of membranous sacs. Proteins are sorted and packaged in the Golgi apparatus.

The mitochondria is the site of ATP production for the cell. ATP is the energy currency of the cell. Mitochondria are nicknamed, the "powerhouse".

3.
Which organelle contains detoxifying enzymes?
a. Ribosomes
b. Peroxisome
c. Microfilaments
d. Centrioles
e. Nucleoli

Answer: b

The ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis.

Peroxisomes contain enzymes for detoxification. One of the enzymes within peroxisomes is catalase. Catalase is involved in the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide.

Microfilaments are made of actin. They form the cells cytoskeleton.

Centrioles are composed of microtubules. Centrioles are at the base of cilia and flagella. They are also involved with cell division.

Ribosomes are assembled in the nucleoli. The nucleolus is a spherical area within the cell nucleus.

4.
Which of the following is NOT a membranous organelle?
a. Microtubules
b. Lysosomes
c. Peroxisomes
d. Mitochondria
e. Endoplasmic reticulum

Answer: a

Lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum are all membranous organelles.

5.
What is the limiting membrane of a cell?
a. Plasmalemma
b. Glycocalyx
c. Protoplasm
d. Cristae
e. Ground substance

Answer: a

The cell boundary is defined by the cell membrane or plasmalemma. Glycocalyx is a polysacchride that can be found on the outer surface of the cell membranes. Collectively, the cytoplasm and nucleus form the protoplasm of a cell. The folds on the inner mitochodrial membrane are called cristae. The cytoplasm that surrounds organelles is the cytoplasmic ground substance or cytosol.

6.
What is also called a low resistance junction?
a. Tight junction
b. Gap junction
c. Junctional epithelium
d. Junctional complex
e. None of the above

Answer: b

A gap junction is a low resistance junction.

7.
Which of the following is an organelle?
a. Pigment
b. Glycogen
c. Lipid
d. Secretory granules
e. Mitochondria

Answer: e

Mitochondria is an organelle. Pigment, glycogen, lipid, and secretory granules are all considered inclusions. Organelles perform an activity; they have a job; they require energy. Inclusions are for storage. Inclusions do not perform an energy requiring job.

8.
What is the term for the general process that cells us to bring things into the cell?
a. Endocytosis
b. Exocytosis
c. Pinocytosis
d. Phagocytosis
e. Active transport

Answer: a

Endotyosis is the term for the process cells use to have substances enter them. Exoctyosis is the term for the process cells use to remove substances. Phagocytosis is "cell eating" and is used for the transport of particulate matter. Pinocytosis is "cell drinking". Active transport is a method which requires energy.

9.
Which organelle produces protein for export?
a. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
b. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
c. Lysosome
d. Golgi apparatus
e. Mitochondria

Answer: a

Endoplasmic reticulum is a system of tubules. If there are ribosomes on the tubules, it is termed "rough endoplasmic reticulum". Ribosomes produce proteins. When the ribosomes are attached to endoplasmic reticulum, the proteins produced by the ribosomes are exported. If there are no ribosomes on the endoplasmic reticulum, it is called "smooth endoplasmic reticulum". The role of smooth endoplasmic reticulum is lipid metabolism.

Lysosomes are membrane bound sacs of digestive enzymes. They are nicknamed "suicide sacs".

The Golgi apparatus are stacks of membranous sacs. Proteins are sorted and packaged in the Golgi apparatus.

The mitochondria is the site of ATP production for the cell. ATP is the energy currency of the cell. Mitochondria are nicknamed, the "powerhouse".

10.
Where are ribosomes constructed?
a. Cytoskeleton
b. Peroxisome
c. Microfilaments
d. Centrioles
e. Nucleoli

Answer: e

The ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis.

Peroxisomes contain enzymes for detoxification. One of the enzymes within peroxisomes is catalase. Catalase is involved in the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide.

Microfilaments are made of actin. They form the cells cytoskeleton.

Centrioles are composed of microtubules. Centrioles are at the base of cilia and flagella. They are also involved with cell division.

Ribosomes are assembled in the nucleoli. The nucleolus is a spherical area within the cell nucleus.