Histology-World!

 

 

 

Histology Testbank: Cells 3

 

Instructions: For each histology question, pick the one best answer. This histology test bank is also useful for the histology questions on the USMLE (USMLE step 1).

1.
What is the term for the process used by cells for the transport in of particulate matter?
a. Endocytosis
b. Exocytosis
c. Pinocytosis
d. Phagocytosis
e. Active transport

Answer: d

Endotyosis is the term for the process cells use to have substances enter them. Exoctyosis is the term for the process cells use to remove substances. Phagocytosis is "cell eating" and is used for the transport of particulate matter. Pinocytosis is "cell drinking". Active transport is a method which requires energy.

2.
What is another term for the cytoplasm outside of organelles?
a. Plasmalemma
b. Glycocalyx
c. Protoplasm
d. Cristae
e. Ground substance

Answer: e

The cell boundary is defined by the cell membrane or plasmalemma. Glycocalyx is a polysacchride that can be found on the outer surface of the cell membranes. Collectively, the cytoplasm and nucleus form the protoplasm of a cell. The folds on the inner mitochodrial membrane are called cristae. The cytoplasm that surrounds organelles is the cytoplasmic ground substance or cytosol.

3.
What is the a small clear space within a cell?
a. Space of Disse
b. Space of Mall
c. Vacuole
d. Lacuna
e. Howship's lacuna

Answer: c

The space of Disse is in the liver. The space of Disse is also called the perisinusoidal space. It is the space between the liver sinusoids and the hepatocytes.

The space of Mall is also in the liver. The space of Mall is located at the portal canal and is the region between the connective tissue and the liver parenchymal cells. It is the site where lymph is formed within the liver.

A vacuole is a small clear space within an individual cell.

A lacuna is a small space or depression. The space that the chondrocyte rests in is a lacuna.

Howship's lacuna is seen in bone. Howship's lacuna is a space seen underneath an osteoclast.

4.
Which of the following is NOT a membranous organelle?
a. Lysosomes
b. Peroxisomes
c. Centrioles
d. Mitochondria
e. Endoplasmic reticulum

Answer: c

Lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum are all membranous organelles.

5.
What is the polysaccharide coating that is sometimes found on the cell membrane?
a. Plasmalemma
b. Glycocalyx
c. Protoplasm
d. Cristae
e. Ground substance

Answer: b

The cell boundary is defined by the cell membrane or plasmalemma. Glycocalyx is a polysacchride that can be found on the outer surface of the cell membranes. Collectively, the cytoplasm and nucleus form the protoplasm of a cell. The folds on the inner mitochodrial membrane are called cristae. The cytoplasm that surrounds organelles is the cytoplasmic ground substance or cytosol.

6.
What process is nicknamed "cell drinking"?
a. Endocytosis
b. Exocytosis
c. Pinocytosis
d. Phagocytosis
e. Active transport

Answer: c

Endotyosis is the term for the process cells use to have substances enter them. Exoctyosis is the term for the process cells use to remove substances. Phagocytosis is "cell eating" and is used for the transport of particulate matter. Pinocytosis is "cell drinking". Active transport is a method which requires energy.

7.
Which organelle is studded with ribosomes?
a. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
b. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
c. Lysosome
d. Golgi apparatus
e. Mitochondria

Answer: a

Endoplasmic reticulum is a system of tubules. If there are ribosomes on the tubules, it is termed "rough endoplasmic reticulum". Ribosomes produce proteins. When the ribosomes are attached to endoplasmic reticulum, the proteins produced by the ribosomes are exported. If there are no ribosomes on the endoplasmic reticulum, it is called "smooth endoplasmic reticulum". The role of smooth endoplasmic reticulum is lipid metabolism.

Lysosomes are membrane bound sacs of digestive enzymes. They are nicknamed "suicide sacs".

The Golgi apparatus are stacks of membranous sacs. Proteins are sorted and packaged in the Golgi apparatus.

The mitochondria is the site of ATP production for the cell. ATP is the energy currency of the cell. Mitochondria are nicknamed, the "powerhouse".

8.
Where is the site of protein synthesis?
a. Ribosomes
b. Peroxisome
c. Microfilaments
d. Centrioles
e. Nucleoli

Answer: a

The ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis.

Peroxisomes contain enzymes for detoxification. One of the enzymes within peroxisomes is catalase. Catalase is involved in the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide.

Microfilaments are made of actin. They form the cells cytoskeleton.

Centrioles are composed of microtubules. Centrioles are at the base of cilia and flagella. They are also involved with cell division.

Ribosomes are assembled in the nucleoli. The nucleolus is a spherical area within the cell nucleus.

9.
What structure contributes to the cells cytoskeleton?
a. Ribosomes
b. Peroxisome
c. Microfilaments
d. Centrioles
e. Nucleoli

Answer: c

The ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis.

Peroxisomes contain enzymes for detoxification. One of the enzymes within peroxisomes is catalase. Catalase is involved in the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide.

Microfilaments are made of actin. They form the cells cytoskeleton.

Centrioles are composed of microtubules. Centrioles are at the base of cilia and flagella. They are also involved with cell division.

Ribosomes are assembled in the nucleoli. The nucleolus is a spherical area within the cell nucleus.