Histology-World!

 

 

 

Histology Testbank: Endocrine 2a

 

Instructions: For each histology question, pick the one best answer. This histology test bank is also useful for the histology questions on the USMLE (USMLE step 1).

1.
What type of hormone is insulin?
a. Protein
b. Peptide
c. Steroid
d. Catecholamine
e. None of the above

Answer: a

Hormones can have a variety of structures. Hormones which are proteins include insulin and prolactin. Peptide chains are short chains of amino acids. Examples of hormones which are peptide chains are antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin. Steroid hormones are cholesterol derivatives. Steroid hormones include testosterone and estradiol. Norepinephrine and epinephrine are catecholamines.

2.
What connects the pituitary to the hypothalamus?
a. Pars intermedia
b. Pars tuberalis
c. Infundibulum
d. Adenohypophysis
e. Neurohypophysis

Answer: c

The pituitary is nicknamed the master gland. The infundibulum connects the pituitary to the hypothalamus. The pituitary can be subdivided into the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. The adenohypophysis can be further sub-divided into the pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis. The adenohypophysis (more specifically, the pars distalis of the adenohypophysis) secretes tropic hormones. Tropic hormones affect cellular activity in their target organ. The neurohypophysis secretes two hormones: oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone.

3.
Which of the following is not part of the adenohypophysis?
a. Pars intermedia
b. Pars tuberalis
c. Pars distalis
d. Pars nervosa
e. All of the above are part of the adenohypophysis

Answer: d

The pituitary can be subdivided into the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. The adenohypophysis can be further sub-divided into the pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis. The pars distalis is the anterior lobe of the pituitary. The neurohypophysis can be further sub-divided into the pars nervosa, infundibular stalk, and median eminence. The pars nervosa is the posterior lobe.

4.
What cell type secretes prolactin?
a. Lactotropic cells
b. Thyrotropic cells
c. Somatotropic cells
d. Corticotropic cells
e. Gonadotropic cells

Answer: a

There are several cell types in the pars distalis (anterior pituitary). Lactotropic cells secrete prolactin. Thyrotropic cells secrete thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Somatotropic cells secrete growth hormone. Corticotropic cells secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). Gonadotropic cells secrete follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

5.
Which of the following cells can be classified as an acidophil?
a. Gonadotropic cells
b. Corticotropic cells
c. Thyrotropic cells
d. Lactotropic cells
e. All of the above

Answer: d

The cells of the pars distalis (anterior pituitary) can be classified as acidophils or basophils depending on their affinity for acid or basic dyes, respectively.

The acidophils are the somatotropic cells and the lactotropic cells. Thus, growth hormone and prolactin are secreted by acidophilic cells.

The basophils are the gonadotropic cells, corticotropic cells and thyrotropic cells. Thus, the basophils secrete FSH, LH, ACTH, and TSH.

Histology hint from Sarah Bellham:

There are two mnemonics to use when thinking of acidophils and basophils of the anterior pituitary.

"GPA" (growth hormone and prolactin are secreted by the acidophils).

"B-FLAT" (basophils secrete FSH, LH, ACTH, and TSH).

histology piano

6.
Which gland secretes calcitonin?
a. Pancreas
b. Thyroid
c. Pineal gland
d. Adrenal gland (cortex)
e. Adrenal gland (medulla)

Answer: b

The endocrine portion of the pancreas secretes insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. The thyroid gland secretes the thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and calcitonin. The pineal gland secretes melatonin. The cortex of the adrenal gland secretes a variety of corticosteroids. It secretes mineralocorticoids (such as aldosterone), glucocorticoids (such as cortisol) and sex steroids. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are secreted from the adrenal medulla.

7.
Which cell type are also called C cells?
a. Principal cell
b. Oxyphil cell
c. Parafollicular cells
d. Follicular cells
e. Chromaffin cells

Answer: c

There are two cell types in the parathyroid gland: principal cells and oxyphil cells. Principal cells are also called chief cells. Principal cells are the more prevalent. Oxyphil cells are also found in the parathyroid gland; however they are not as prevalent as principal cells.

There are two cell types in the thyroid: follicular cells and parafollicular cells. Follicular cells release and store thyroid hormone. Parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland are also called C cells. They secrete calcitonin.

The cells of the adrenal medulla are chromaffin cells.

8.
Where is glucagon secreted from?
a. Alpha cells
b. Beta cells
c. Gamma cells
d. Delta cells
e. Acini

Answer: a

The pancreas is both an endocrine and exocrine organ.

The endocrine portion of the pancreas is housed in the islets of Langerhans. Within the islets, there are several cell types. The alpha cells secrete glucagon. The beta cells secrete insulin. The delta cells secrete somatostatin. The gamma cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.

The acini is the exocrine portion of the pancreas.

9.
Which of the following is a component of the adrenal medulla?
a. Chromaffin cells
b. Zona reticularis
c. Zona glomerulosa
d. Zona fasciculata
e. All of the above

Answer: a

The adrenal gland is composed of the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla.

The layers of the adrenal cortex, from outermost to innermost are: zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis. The respective principle products are: mineralocorticods, glucocorticoids, and sex steroids.

The cells of the adrenal medulla are chromaffin cells. They secrete the catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine).

Histology hint from Sarah Bellham: A mnemonic to remember the layers of the adrenal cortex and their respective products is "Go Find Rex; Make Good Sex" (glomerulosa, fasciculata, reticularis) (mineralocorticoid, glucocorticoid, sex steroids).

10.
What are the cells of the pineal gland called?
a. Follicular cells
b. Parafollicular cells
c. Pinealocytes
d. P cells
e. PP cells

Answer: c

The cells of the pineal gland called pinealocytes. There are also glial cells in the pineal gland. PP cells are cells in the pancreas which secrete pancreatic polypeptide.