Histology Testbank: Epithelium 1a
Instructions: For each histology question, pick the one best answer. This histology test bank is also useful for the histology questions on the USMLE (USMLE step 1).
The lining of the bladder is transitional epithelium. Epithelium lines body cavities and surfaces. There are domed shaped cells on the apical surface.
The lining of most ducts is simple cuboidal epithelium. Epithelium lines body cavities and surfaces. Simple cuboidal epithelium is "simple" because it is one cell thick. "Cuboidal" refers to the shape of the cells.
Goblet cells are associated with simple columnar epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract. Epithelium lines body cavities and surfaces. Simple columnar epithelium is "simple" because it is one cell thick. "Columnar" cells are taller than they are wide and have an oval nucleus.
Epithelium that is classified by the number of cell layers and the cell shape. Epithelium that is one cell thick is classified as simple. Epithelium that is more than one cell layer thick is classified as stratified. If the cells are flat, the epithelium is termed squamous. If the cells are as tall as they are wide, it is cuboidal. If the cells are taller than they are wide, the epithelium is classified as columnar.
Epithelial tissue has cells that are very tightly packed together. There is always a free surface associated with epithelial tissue. If a tissue is composed of a conglomeration of cells in tightly packed together, but it does not have a free surface, the tissue is called epithelioid tissue. An example of epithelioid tissue is the parenchyma of the adrenal gland.
Mesothelium is simple squamous epithelium that lines the abdominal cavity, the pericardial cavity, and the thoracic cavity.
Endothelium is simple squamous epithelium that lines the vascular system.
Transitional epithelium is seen in the urinary tract. Transitional epithelium has dome shaped cells on the apical surface.
Pseudostratified epithelium is a type of epithelium that has cells which all touch the basement membrane. Pseudostratified epithelium is only one cell layer thick. Pseudostratified epithelium appears stratified, but it is not really stratified. Thus the name. The prefix "pseudo" means false, such as pseudonym or pseudo-science.
The mucosa of the gallbladder is made of simple columnar epithelium.
Note from Sarah Bellham: The simple columnar epithelium of the gallbladder is very tall!
Serosa lines the peritoneal cavity, pericardial cavity and pleural cavity. Mucosa lines the alimentary canal, genitourinary tract and respiratory tract.
An endocrine gland secretes its product directly into the bloodstream, without a duct or tube. An exocrine gland secretes its product through a duct or tube.
A simple gland has an unbranched duct. A compound gland has a branched duct. If the secretory portion of a gland is tube shaped, it is called "tubular". If the secretory portion of a gland is flask shaped, it is called "alveolar" or "acinar". If the secretory portion of a gland is a tube shaped but at the terminus is flask shaped, it is called "tubuloalveolar".
Microvilli are the finger like projections seen on the surface of some cells. The appearance of microvilli form what is also called the brush border or striated border.
Stereocilia are very long microvilli. Stereocilia are seen in the epididymis and the hair cells of the ear.
Cilia is the hair like surface modification seen on some epithelia. Cilia are made of microtubules.
Keratinization is seen in the epidermis. Cells in the stratum corneum are essentially just bags of keratin.
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