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Histology Testbank: Epithelium 2a

 

Instructions: For each histology question, pick the one best answer. This histology test bank is also useful for the histology questions on the USMLE (USMLE step 1).

1.
What type of epithelium lines the trachea?
a. Simple squamous epithelium
b. Simple cuboidal epithelium
c. Simple columnar epithelium
d. Stratified squamous epithelium
e. Pseudostratified epithelium

Answer: e

The trachea is lined by pseudostratified squamous epithelium. Epithelium lines body cavities and surfaces. Pseudostratified squamous epithelium is "pseudostratified" because it is only one cell layer thick, yet it appears to be stratified. In reality, every cell touches the basement membrane.

Histology hint from Sarah Bellham: The prefix "pseudo" is of Greek origin and it means false or counterfeit. For example: pseudonym, pseudo-science or pseudostratified.

2.
What type of tissue lines blood vessels?
a. Simple squamous epithelium
b. Simple cuboidal epithelium
c. Simple columnar epithelium
d. Stratified squamous epithelium
e. Transitional epithelium

Answer: a

The lining of a blood vessel is simple squamous epithelium. This lining is called endothelium. Epithelium lines body cavities and surfaces. Simple squamous epithelium is "simple" because it is one cell thick. "Squamous" refers to the fact that the cells are flat.

3.
What type of epithelium is more than one layer thick?
a. Simple
b. Stratified
c. Squamous
d. Cuboidal
e. Columnar

Answer: b

Epithelium that is classified by the number of cell layers and the cell shape. Epithelium that is one cell thick is classified as simple. Epithelium that is more than one cell layer thick is classified as stratified. If the cells are flat, the epithelium is termed squamous. If the cells are as tall as they are wide, it is cuboidal. If the cells are taller than they are wide, the epithelium is classified as columnar.

4.
What do you call a tissue composed of a conglomeration of cells which are tightly packed together, yet which does not have a free surface? An example of such a tissue would be the parenchyma of the adrenal gland.
a. Epithelioid tissue
b. Mesothelium
c. Endothelium
d. Transitional
e. Pseudostratified

Answer: a

Epithelial tissue has cells that are very tightly packed together. There is always a free surface associated with epithelial tissue. If a tissue is composed of a conglomeration of cells in tightly packed together, but it does not have a free surface, the tissue is called epithelioid tissue. An example of epithelioid tissue is the parenchyma of the adrenal gland.

Mesothelium is simple squamous epithelium that lines the abdominal cavity, the pericardial cavity, and the thoracic cavity.

Endothelium is simple squamous epithelium that lines the vascular system.

Transitional epithelium is seen in the urinary tract. Transitional epithelium has dome shaped cells on the apical surface.

Pseudostratified epithelium is a type of epithelium that has cells which all touch the basement membrane. Pseudostratified epithelium is only one cell layer thick. Pseudostratified epithelium appears stratified, but it is not really stratified. Thus the name. The prefix "pseudo" means false, such as pseudonym or pseudo-science.

5.
What type of epithelium appears stratified, but is not?
a. Epithelioid tissue
b. Mesothelium
c. Endothelium
d. Transitional
e. Pseudostratified

Answer: e

Epithelial tissue has cells that are very tightly packed together. There is always a free surface associated with epithelial tissue. If a tissue is composed of a conglomeration of cells in tightly packed together, but it does not have a free surface, the tissue is called epithelioid tissue. An example of epithelioid tissue is the parenchyma of the adrenal gland.

Mesothelium is simple squamous epithelium that lines the abdominal cavity, the pericardial cavity, and the thoracic cavity.

Endothelium is simple squamous epithelium that lines the vascular system.

Transitional epithelium is seen in the urinary tract. Transitional epithelium has dome shaped cells on the apical surface.

Pseudostratified epithelium is a type of epithelium that has cells which all touch the basement membrane. Pseudostratified epithelium is only one cell layer thick. Pseudostratified epithelium appears stratified, but it is not really stratified. Thus the name. The prefix "pseudo" means false, such as pseudonym or pseudo-science.

6.
Which of the following is lined by a mucosa?
a. Peritoneal cavity
b. Pericardial cavity
c. Pleural cavity
d. Alimentary canal
e. All of the above are lined by a mucosa

Answer: d

Serosa lines the peritoneal cavity, pericardial cavity and pleural cavity. Mucosa lines the alimentary canal, genitourinary tract and respiratory tract.

7.
What type of gland secretes its product directly into the bloodstream?
a. Endocrine gland
b. Multicellular gland
c. Exocrine gland
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

Answer: a

An endocrine gland secretes its product directly into the bloodstream, without a duct or tube. An exocrine gland secretes its product through a duct or tube.

8.
What is a gland called if it has an unbranched duct?
a. Simple gland
b. Compound gland
c. Tubular
d. Alveolar
e. Tubuloalveolar

Answer: a

A simple gland has an unbranched duct. A compound gland has a branched duct. If the secretory portion of a gland is tube shaped, it is called "tubular". If the secretory portion of a gland is flask shaped, it is called "alveolar" or "acinar". If the secretory portion of a gland is a tube shaped but at the terminus is flask shaped, it is called "tubuloalveolar".

9.
What is a gland called if the secretory portion is tube shaped ending in a flask shaped
area at the terminus?
a. Simple gland
b. Compound gland
c. Tubular
d. Alveolar
e. Tubuloalveolar

Answer: e

A simple gland has an unbranched duct. A compound gland has a branched duct. If the secretory portion of a gland is tube shaped, it is called "tubular". If the secretory portion of a gland is flask shaped, it is called "alveolar" or "acinar". If the secretory portion of a gland is a tube shaped but at the terminus is flask shaped, it is called "tubuloalveolar".

10.
What is the surface modification seen on the cells of the epididymis?
a. Microvilli
b. Stereocilia
c. Cilia
d. Keratinization
e. Both a and b

Answer: b

Microvilli are the finger like projections seen on the surface of some cells. The appearance of microvilli form what is also called the brush border or striated border.

Stereocilia are very long microvilli. Stereocilia are seen in the epididymis and the hair cells of the ear.

Cilia is the hair like surface modification seen on some epithelia. Cilia are made of microtubules.

Keratinization is seen in the epidermis. Cells in the stratum corneum are essentially just bags of keratin.