Histology-World!

 

 

 

Histology Testbank: Hepatobiliarary System 1a

 

Instructions: For each histology question, pick the one best answer. This histology test bank is also useful for the histology questions on the USMLE (USMLE step 1).

1.
Which of the following is the exocrine portion of the pancreas?
a. Islets of Langerhans
b. Alpha cells
c. Beta cells
d. Delta cells
e. Acini

Answer: e

The pancreas is both an endocrine and exocrine organ.

The endocrine portion of the pancreas is housed in the islets of Langerhans. Within the islets, there are several cell types. The alpha cells secrete glucagon. The beta cells secrete insulin. The delta cells secrete somatostain. The gamma cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.

The acini is the exocrine portion of the pancreas.

2.
What are divertiuclae of the mucosa of the gallbladder called?
a. Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses
b. Ducts of Luschka
c. Duct of Wirsung
d. Ampulla of Vater
e. Sphincter of Oddi

Answer: a

Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses are divertiuclae of the mucosa of the gallbladder. The small bile ducts which connec between the cystic duct and liver are the ducts of Luschka The duct of Wirsung is the pancreatic duct. The opening of the pancreatic duct into the duodenum is at the ampulla of Vater. The valves which regulates the flow of bile into the small intestine is the sphincter of Oddi.

3.
What structure is in the middle of the hepatic lobule?
a. Hepatic artery
b. Portal triad
c. Central vein
d. Portal vein
e. Sinusoids

Answer: c

Hepatocytes are the liver cells. They are arranged to form a liver lobule, which is the functional unit of the liver. The liver lobule is a hexagonal shaped structure. At the angles of the liver lobule are portal triads. The portal triad is composed of a branch of the hepatic artery, portal vein, and bile duct. In the middle of the liver lobule is a central vein. Hepatic sinusoids run between the hepatocytes.

4.
What is the space between the liver sinusoids and the hepatocytes called?
a. Space of Disse
b. Space of Mall
c. Vacuole
d. Lacuna
e. Howship's lacuna

Answer: a

The space of Disse is in the liver. The space of Disse is also called the perisinosoidal space. It is the space between the liver sinusoids and the hepatocytes.

The space of Mall is also in the liver. The space of Mall is located at the portal canal and is the region between the connective tissue and the liver parenchymal cells. It is the site where lymph is formed within the liver.

A vacuole is a small clear space within an individual cell.

A lacuna is a small space or depression. The space that the chondrocyte rests in is a lacuna.

Howship's lacuna is seen in bone. Howship's lacuna is a space seen underneath an osteoclast.

5.
What is the name of the cellular mass for the endocrine portion of the pancreas?
a. Islets of Langerhans
b. Alpha cells
c. Beta cells
d. Delta cells
e. Acini

Answer: a

The pancreas is both an endocrine and exocrine organ.

The endocrine portion of the pancreas is housed in the islets of Langerhans. Within the islets, there are several cell types. The alpha cells secrete glucagon. The beta cells secrete insulin. The delta cells secrete somatostain. The gamma cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.

The acini is the exocrine portion of the pancreas.

6.
Which structures are part of the portal triad?
a. Portal vein
b. Hepatic artery
c. Central vein
d. Sinusoids
e. Both a and b

Answer: e

Hepatocytes are the liver cells. They are arranged to form a liver lobule, which is the functional unit of the liver. The liver lobule is a hexagonal shaped structure. At the angles of the liver lobule are portal triads. The portal triad is composed of a branch of the hepatic artery, portal vein, and bile duct. In the middle of the liver lobule is a central vein. Hepatic sinusoids run between the hepatocytes.

7.
Which of the following is NOT a function of the liver?
a. Metabolism of bilirubin
b. Deamination of amino acids
c. Storage of iron
d. Storage of copper
e. Storage of calcium

Answer: e

The liver performs many, many functions. Estimates range at over 500 different functions for the liver.

Bilirubin is metabolized in the liver. The conversion of amino acids to carbohydrates through the process of deamination occurs in the liver. Iron is stored in the liver as ferritin. Copper is stored in the liver.

The storage site for calcium is in the bones.

Histology hint from Sarah Bellham: If ever asked where a process occurs, and you absolutely have no idea, make an educated guess of the liver.

8.
What is the functional unit of the liver?
a. Lobule
b. Portal triad
c. Central vein
d. Hepatocyte
e. Sinusoids

Answer: a

Hepatocytes are the liver cells. They are arranged to form a liver lobule, which is the functional unit of the liver. The liver lobule is a hexagonal shaped structure. At the angles of the liver lobule are portal triads. The portal triad is composed of a branch of the hepatic artery, portal vein, and bile duct. In the middle of the liver lobule is a central vein. Hepatic sinusoids run between the hepatocytes.

9.
What are the valves which regulates the flow of bile into the intestine?
a. Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses
b. Ducts of Luschka
c. Duct of Wirsung
d. Ampulla of Vater
e. Sphincter of Oddi

Answer: e

Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses are divertiuclae of the mucosa of the gallbladder. The small bile ducts which connec between the cystic duct and liver are the ducts of Luschka The duct of Wirsung is the pancreatic duct. The opening of the pancreatic duct into the duodenum is at the ampulla of Vater. The valves which regulates the flow of bile into the small intestine is the sphincter of Oddi.

10.
What cells of the pancreas secrete somatostatin?
a. Islets of Langerhans
b. Alpha cells
c. Beta cells
d. Delta cells
e. Gamma cells

Answer: d

The pancreas is both an endocrine and exocrine organ.

The endocrine portion of the pancreas is housed in the islets of Langerhans. Within the islets, there are several cell types. The alpha cells secrete glucagon. The beta cells secrete insulin. The delta cells secrete somatostain. The gamma cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.

The acini is the exocrine portion of the pancreas.