Histology-World!

 

 

 

Histology Testbank: Hepatobiliary System 3a

 

Instructions: For each histology question, pick the one best answer. This histology test bank is also useful for the histology questions on the USMLE (USMLE step 1).

1.
What cells of the pancreas secrete insulin?
a. Islets of Langerhans
b. Alpha cells
c. Beta cells
d. Delta cells
e. Gamma cells

Answer: c

The pancreas is both an endocrine and exocrine organ.

The endocrine portion of the pancreas is housed in the islets of Langerhans. Within the islets, there are several cell types. The alpha cells secrete glucagon. The beta cells secrete insulin. The delta cells secrete somatostain. The gamma cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.

The acini is the exocrine portion of the pancreas.

2.
What is the pancreatic duct?
a. Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses
b. Ducts of Luschka
c. Duct of Wirsung
d. Ampulla of Vater
e. Sphincter of Oddi

Answer: c

Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses are divertiuclae of the mucosa of the gallbladder. The small bile ducts which connec between the cystic duct and liver are the ducts of Luschka The duct of Wirsung is the pancreatic duct. The opening of the pancreatic duct into the duodenum is at the ampulla of Vater. The valves which regulates the flow of bile into the small intestine is the sphincter of Oddi.

3.
What structure is at the angle of the liver lobule?
a. Lobule
b. Portal triad
c. Central vein
d. Hepatocyte
e. Sinusoids

Answer: b

Hepatocytes are the liver cells. They are arranged to form a liver lobule, which is the functional unit of the liver. The liver lobule is a hexagonal shaped structure. At the angles of the liver lobule are portal triads. The portal triad is composed of a branch of the hepatic artery, portal vein, and bile duct. In the middle of the liver lobule is a central vein. Hepatic sinusoids run between the hepatocytes.

4.
Which of the following is NOT a function of the liver?
a. Cholecystokinin production
b. Bile production
c. Detoxification
d. Albumin production
e. Synthesis of clotting factors

Answer: a

The liver performs many, many functions. Estimates range at over 500 different functions for the liver.

Bile production occurs in the liver. The liver receives blood from the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein. The blood in the hepatic portal vein is the "first stop" directly from the intestines, giving the liver the prime opportunity to detoxify substances. The liver synthesizes proteins such as albumin, fibrinogen, and prothrombin. Fibrinogen (Factor I) and prothrombin (Factor II) are clotting factors involved in clotting. The liver also makes Factors VII, IX, and X.

Cholecystokinin is produced by the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract.

Histology hint from Sarah Bellham: If ever asked where a process occurs, and you absolutely have no idea, make an educated guess of the liver.

5.
What cells of the pancreas secrete glucagon?
a. Islets of Langerhans
b. Alpha cells
c. Beta cells
d. Delta cells
e. Gamma cells

Answer: b

The pancreas is both an endocrine and exocrine organ.

The endocrine portion of the pancreas is housed in the islets of Langerhans. Within the islets, there are several cell types. The alpha cells secrete glucagon. The beta cells secrete insulin. The delta cells secrete somatostain. The gamma cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.

The acini is the exocrine portion of the pancreas.

6.
What are the connection between the cystic duct and liver?
a. Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses
b. Ducts of Luschka
c. Duct of Wirsung
d. Ampulla of Vater
e. Sphincter of Oddi

Answer: b

Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses are divertiuclae of the mucosa of the gallbladder. The small bile ducts which connec between the cystic duct and liver are the ducts of Luschka The duct of Wirsung is the pancreatic duct. The opening of the pancreatic duct into the duodenum is at the ampulla of Vater. The valves which regulates the flow of bile into the small intestine is the sphincter of Oddi.

7.
Which of the following is NOT a function of the liver?
a. Conversion of glucose into glycogen
b. Storage of glycogen
c. Storage of bile
d. Storage of fat soluble vitamins
e. Cholesterol synthesis

Answer: c

The liver performs many, many functions. Estimates range at over 500 different functions for the liver.

Glucose is converted to glycogen in the liver. Glycogen is stored in the liver. The liver stores of fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K). Cholesterol is synthesized in the liver.

Once bile is produced by the liver, it is stored in the gallbladder.

Histology hint from Sarah Bellham: If ever asked where a process occurs, and you absolutely have no idea, make an educated guess of the liver.

8.
What cells of the pancreas secrete pancreatic polypeptide?
a. Islets of Langerhans
b. Alpha cells
c. Beta cells
d. Delta cells
e. Gamma cells

Answer: e

The pancreas is both an endocrine and exocrine organ.

The endocrine portion of the pancreas is housed in the islets of Langerhans. Within the islets, there are several cell types. The alpha cells secrete glucagon. The beta cells secrete insulin. The delta cells secrete somatostain. The gamma cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.

The acini is the exocrine portion of the pancreas.