Histology-World!

 

 

 

Histology Testbank: Muscle 4a

 

Instructions: For each histology question, pick the one best answer. This histology test bank is also useful for the histology questions on the USMLE (USMLE step 1).

1.
What is the covering of an individual muscle fiber?
a. Sarcoplasm
b. Perimysium
c. Endomysium
d. Epimysium
e. Sarcolemma

Answer: c

The outer connective tissue covering of a muscle is the epimysium. Within the muscle, there are subdivisions called fascicles. The perimysium surrounds these muscle fascicles. The endomysium is the covering around an individual muscle fiber. The sarcolemma is the plasma membrane of a muscle cell. The sarcoplasm is the cytoplasm of a muscle cell.

2.
What are the thick filaments composed of?
a. Myofilaments
b. Myosin
c. Muscle fibers
d. Myofibrils
e. Myocardium

Answer: b

Myofilaments are the contractile protein within a muscle cell. The myofilaments are actin and myosin. The thin filaments are actin and the thick filaments are myosin. The muscle cell is a muscle fiber. The term "muscle cell" and "muscle fiber" are synonymous. A myofibril is a longitudinal bundle of myofilaments within a muscle cell. Myocardium is the muscular layer of the heart. Thus, the myocardium is composed of cardiac muscle.

3.
Which of the following is composed of cardiac muscle?
a. Biceps muscle
b. Tongue
c. Heart
d. Upper esophagus
e. Walls of the visceral organs

Answer: c

There are two chief categories of muscle: striated and non striated muscle (smooth muscle).

Striated muscle can be sub-categorized into cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle. The tongue, biceps muscle, and upper esophagus are made of striated muscle. The heart is composed of cardiac muscle.

Non striated muscle is also called smooth muscle. Smooth muscle is involuntary muscle. It is found in viscera and blood vessels.

4.
What type of muscle contains centrally placed nuclei?
a. Smooth muscle
b. Cardiac muscle
c. Skeletal muscle
d. Both "a" and "b"
e. "a" "b" and "c"

Answer: d

Skeletal muscle fibers are multinucleated. The nuclei are located on the periphery of the cell. In cardiac muscle, the nucleus is located centrally. In smooth muscle, there is also a centrally placed nucleus.

PEARL from Sarah Bellham: This is an important point, as both skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle are striated. The centrally placed nucleus seen in cardiac muscle is one of the things that can be used to distinguish between the two.

5.
What is the point that a neuron contacts a muscle called?
a. Motor unit
b. Motor neuron
c. Motor end plate
d. Neuromuscular spindle
e. Neurotransmitter

A single motor neuron and the aggregation of muscle fibers innervated by that single neuron is called the motor unit. A motor neuron is a neuron which innervates a muscle cell. The point of contact where a neuron contacts a muscle is the motor end plate. A neuromuscular spindle is a receptor which is sensitive to stretching of the muscle. A neurotransmitter is the chemical released by a nerve at a synapse.

6.
Which fiber type makes up slow-twitch muscle?
a. Red fibers
b. White fibers
c. Intermediate fibers
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

Answer: a

Skeletal muscle fibers can be classified as red fibers, white fibers or intermediate fibers. Red fibers are smaller in diameter; white fibers are larger in diameter. Red fibers have more mitochondria than white fibers. Red fibers make up slow-twitch muscle; white fibers make up fast-twitch muscle. Red fibers are more resistant to fatigue than are white fibers. Red fibers have more myoglobin (oxygen binding pigment) than white fibers. White fibers store glycogen and use anaerobic metabolism.

Red fiber and slow twitch muscle is for endurance.

White fiber and fast twitch muscle is for a burst of power.

7.
Which fiber type uses more anaerobic metabolism?
a. Red fibers
b. White fibers
c. Intermediate fibers
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

Answer: b

Skeletal muscle fibers can be classified as red fibers, white fibers or intermediate fibers. Red fibers are smaller in diameter; white fibers are larger in diameter. Red fibers have more mitochondria than white fibers. Red fibers make up slow-twitch muscle; white fibers make up fast-twitch muscle. Red fibers are more resistant to fatigue than are white fibers. Red fibers have more myoglobin (oxygen binding pigment) than white fibers. White fibers store glycogen and use anaerobic metabolism.

Red fiber and slow twitch muscle is for endurance.

White fiber and fast twitch muscle is for a burst of power.

8.
What is the dark band in muscle?
a. A band
b. I band
c. Z line
d. H band
e. M line

Answer: a

The A band is the darker staining band. The I band is the light band. The I band is made of thin filaments. The Z line runs through the I band. The H band bisects the A band. The M line runs through the H band.

A sarcomere is the segment that runs from Z line to Z line.

9.
What bisects the H band
a. A band
b. I band
c. Z line
d. E band
e. M line

Answer: e

The A band is the darker staining band. The I band is the light band. The I band is made of thin filaments. The Z line runs through the I band. The H band bisects the A band. The M line runs through the H band.

A sarcomere is the segment that runs from Z line to Z line.

10.
What type of muscle has intercalated discs?
a. Skeletal muscle
b. Cardiac muscle
c. Smooth muscle
d. Both "a" and "b"
e. "a" "b" and "c"

Answer: b

Intercalated discs are seen in cardiac muscle. Intercalated discs are specialized junctions between cardiac cells.