Histology-World!

 

 

 

Histology Testbank: Renal 1a

 

Instructions: For each histology question, pick the one best answer. This histology test bank is also useful for the histology questions on the USMLE (USMLE step 1).

1.
What is the glomerulus?
a. Afferent arteriole
b. Efferent arteriole
c. Capillary tuft
d. Peritubular capillaries
e. Vasa recta

Answer: c

The afferent arteriole branches off the interlobular artery. The afferent arteriole supplies blood to the glomerulus. The glomerulus is a capillary tuft. The glomerular capillaries converge to form the efferent arteriole. The peritubular capillaries is a second capillary network which arise after the efferent arteriole. They surround the proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and distal tubule. Vasa recta are the "straight vessels" which arise from some of the efferent arterioles.

2.
What is a renal pyramid and its associated cortex referred to?
a. Medulla
b. Lobe
c. Renal columns
d. Nephron
e. Medullary ray

Answer: b

The kidney can be divided into an outer cortex and an inner medulla. A kidney lobe consists of a medullary pyramid, its overlying cortex, and the associated renal column. The renal columns are the tissue in between the pyramids. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney. A region where a portion of the medulla project into the renal cortex are referred to as medullary ray.

3.
Approximately how many nephrons are there in each kidney?
a. 1,000
b. 10,000
c. 100,000
d. 1,000,000
e. 10,000,000

Answer: d

There are approximately one million (1,000,000) nephrons in each kidney. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney.

4.
What is the Malpighian corpuscle?
a. Glomerulus
b. Bowman's capsule
c. Renal corpuscle
d. Loop of Henle
e. Distal convoluted tubule

Answer: c

The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron. The nephron can be divided into the glomerulus and uriniferous tubule. The capillary tuft of the nephron is referred to as the glomerulus. Bowman's capsule is a double layered cap surrounding the glomerulus. This is the first portion of the uriniferous tubule. The glomerulus and Bowman's capsule make up the renal corpuscle. Another term for the renal corpuscle is Malpighian corpuscle.

Bowman's capsule leads to the proximal convoluted tubule. The proximal convoluted tubule leads to the loop of Henle. This then leads to the distal convoluted tubule. The distal convoluted tubule then leads to the collecting duct.

5.
What are the ducts of Bellini?
a. Collecting tubules
b. Distal convoluted tubule
c. Proximal convoluted tubule
d. Loop of Henle
e. Medullary ray

Answer: a

Large collecting tubules near the apex of the pyramid are the ducts of Bellini. The ducts of Bellini are also called a papillary ducts.

6.
What are the foot processes on podocytes?
a. Visceral layer of Bowman's capsule
b. Parietal layer of Bowman's capsule
c. Pedicels
d. Juxtaglomerular cells
e. Macula densa

Answer: c

The inner layer of Bowman's capsule is the visceral layer. It consists of cells called podocytes. The outer layer of Bowman's capsule is the parietal layer. Pedicels are the foot processes on the podocytes. The juxtaglomerular cells secrete renin. The macula densa are specialized cells in the distal convoluted tubule that are sensitive to sodium. The juxtaglomerular cells and macula densa make up the juxtaglomerular apparatus.

7.
What vessel is a branch of the interlobular artery?
a. Afferent arteriole
b. Efferent arteriole
c. Capillary tuft
d. Peritubular capillaries
e. Vasa recta

Answer: a

The afferent arteriole branches off the interlobular artery. The afferent arteriole supplies blood to the glomerulus. The glomerulus is a capillary tuft. The glomerular capillaries converge to form the efferent arteriole. The peritubular capillaries is a second capillary network which arise after the efferent arteriole. They surround the proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and distal tubule. Vasa recta are the "straight vessels" which arise from some of the efferent arterioles.

8.
What type of tissue lines the bladder?
a. Simple squamous epithelium
b. Simple cuboidal epithelium
c. Simple columnar epithelium
d. Stratified squamous epithelium
e. Transitional epithelium

Answer: e

The lining of the bladder is transitional epithelium. Epithelium lines body cavities and surfaces. There are domed shaped cells on the apical surface.

9.
What is the projection of the medulla into the renal cortex called?
a. Medulla
b. Lobe
c. Renal columns
d. Nephron
e. Medullary ray

Answer: e

The kidney can be divided into an outer cortex and an inner medulla. A kidney lobe consists of a medullary pyramid, its overlying cortex, and the associated renal column. The renal columns are the tissue in between the pyramids. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney. A region where a portion of the medulla project into the renal cortex are referred to as medullary ray.

10.
What makes up the Juxtaglomerular apparatus?
a. Pedicels
b. Juxtaglomerular cells
c. Macula densa
d. Both a and b
e. Both b and c

Answer: e

The inner layer of Bowman's capsule is the visceral layer. It consists of cells called podocytes. Pedicels are the foot processes on the podocytes. The juxtaglomerular cells secrete renin. The macula densa are specialized cells in the distal convoluted tubule that are sensitive to sodium. The juxtaglomerular cells and macula densa make up the juxtaglomerular apparatus.