Histology-World!

 

 

 

Histology Testbank: Renal 2a

 

Instructions: For each histology question, pick the one best answer. This histology test bank is also useful for the histology questions on the USMLE (USMLE step 1).

1.
What vessels arise from the efferent arteriole?
a. Afferent arteriole
b. Efferent arteriole
c. Capillary tuft
d. Peritubular capillaries
e. Vasa recta

Answer: d

The afferent arteriole branches off the interlobular artery. The afferent arteriole supplies blood to the glomerulus. The glomerulus is a capillary tuft. The glomerular capillaries converge to form the efferent arteriole. The peritubular capillaries is a second capillary network which arise after the efferent arteriole. They surround the proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and distal tubule. Vasa recta are the "straight vessels" which arise from some of the efferent arterioles.

2.
Which structure does the proximal convoluted lead to?
a. Glomerulus
b. Bowman's capsule
c. Renal corpuscle
d. Loop of Henle
e. Distal convoluted tubule

Answer: d

The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron. The nephron can be divided into the glomerulus and uriniferous tubule. The capillary tuft of the nephron is referred to as the glomerulus. Bowman's capsule is a double layered cap surrounding the glomerulus. This is the first portion of the uriniferous tubule. The glomerulus and Bowman's capsule make up the renal corpuscle. Another term for the renal corpuscle is Malpighian corpuscle.

Bowman's capsule leads to the proximal convoluted tubule. The proximal convoluted tubule leads to the loop of Henle. This then leads to the distal convoluted tubule. The distal convoluted tubule then leads to the collecting duct.

3.
What is the correct term for the foot processes on podocytes?
a. Pedis
b. Pedicels
c. Pedalis
d. Pes
e. Pediocyte

Answer: b

The inner layer of Bowman's capsule is the visceral layer. It consists of cells called podocytes. Pedicels are the foot processes on the podocytes.

Note from Sarah Bellham: The Latin prefix pedalis, pes and pedis refers to the foot. Such words include pedal, pedicure, pedestrian and of course, the one we are all familiar with, the foot process on podocytes, which are pedicels.

4.
Which of the following is NOT a function of the kidney?
a. Erythropoietin production
b. Vitamin D modification
c. Acid base balance
d. Aldosterone production
e. Renin production

Answer: d

The kidney is involved in several things, in addition to urine production.

Erythropoietin is produced in the kidney. Vitamin D is modified in the kidney, specifically, there is the addition of hydroxyl groups. The kidney plays an important role in acid base balance. Renin is produced in the kidney.

Aldosterone is produced in the adrenal gland.

5.
What is the space between the renal pyramids called?
a. Medulla
b. Lobe
c. Renal columns
d. Nephron
e. Medullary ray

Answer: c

The kidney can be divided into an outer cortex and an inner medulla. A kidney lobe consists of a medullary pyramid, its overlying cortex, and the associated renal column. The renal columns are the tissue in between the pyramids. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney. A region where a portion of the medulla project into the renal cortex are referred to as medullary ray.

6.
What is the capillary tuft of the nephron?
a. Glomerulus
b. Bowman's capsule
c. Renal corpuscle
d. Loop of Henle
e. Distal convoluted tubule

Answer: a

The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron. The nephron can be divided into the glomerulus and uriniferous tubule. The capillary tuft of the nephron is referred to as the glomerulus. Bowman's capsule is a double layered cap surrounding the glomerulus. This is the first portion of the uriniferous tubule. The glomerulus and Bowman's capsule make up the renal corpuscle. Another term for the renal corpuscle is Malpighian corpuscle.

Bowman's capsule leads to the proximal convoluted tubule. The proximal convoluted tubule leads to the loop of Henle. This then leads to the distal convoluted tubule. The distal convoluted tubule then leads to the collecting duct.

7.
What vessel supplies blood to the glomerulus?
a. Afferent arteriole
b. Efferent arteriole
c. Capillary tuft
d. Peritubular capillaries
e. Vasa recta

Answer: a

The afferent arteriole branches off the interlobular artery. The afferent arteriole supplies blood to the glomerulus. The glomerulus is a capillary tuft. The glomerular capillaries converge to form the efferent arteriole. The peritubular capillaries is a second capillary network which arise after the efferent arteriole. They surround the proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and distal tubule. Vasa recta are the "straight vessels" which arise from some of the efferent arterioles.

8.
What type of tissue composes the kidney tubules?
a. Simple squamous epithelium
b. Simple cuboidal epithelium
c. Simple columnar epithelium
d. Stratified squamous epithelium
e. Transitional epithelium

Answer: b

The kidney tubules are simple cuboidal epithelium. Epithelium lines body cavities and surfaces. Simple cuboidal epithelium is "simple" because it is one cell thick. "Cuboidal" refers to the shape of the cells.

9.
Where is renin secreted from?
a. Visceral layer of Bowman's capsule
b. Parietal layer of Bowman's capsule
c. Pedicels
d. Juxtaglomerular cells
e. Macula densa

Answer: d

The inner layer of Bowman's capsule is the visceral layer. It consists of cells called podocytes. The outer layer of Bowman's capsule is the parietal layer. Pedicels are the foot processes on the podocytes. The juxtaglomerular cells secrete renin. The macula densa are specialized cells in the distal convoluted tubule that are sensitive to sodium. The juxtaglomerular cells and macula densa make up the juxtaglomerular apparatus.

10.
What are the "straight vessels"?
a. Afferent arteriole
b. Efferent arteriole
c. Capillary tuft
d. Peritubular capillaries
e. Vasa recta

Answer: e

The afferent arteriole branches off the interlobular artery. The afferent arteriole supplies blood to the glomerulus. The glomerulus is a capillary tuft. The glomerular capillaries converge to form the efferent arteriole. The peritubular capillaries is a second capillary network which arise after the efferent arteriole. They surround the proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and distal tubule. Vasa recta are the "straight vessels" which arise from some of the efferent arterioles.