Histology-World!

 

 

 

Histology Testbank: Renal 3a

 

Instructions: For each histology question, pick the one best answer. This histology test bank is also useful for the histology questions on the USMLE (USMLE step 1).

1.
What is the inner region of the kidney called?
a. Medulla
b. Lobe
c. Renal columns
d. Nephron
e. Medullary ray

Answer: a

The kidney can be divided into an outer cortex and an inner medulla. A kidney lobe consists of a medullary pyramid, its overlying cortex, and the associated renal column. The renal columns are the tissue in between the pyramids. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney. A region where a portion of the medulla project into the renal cortex are referred to as medullary ray.

2.
What is the double layered cap on the glomerulus?
a. Glomerulus
b. Bowman's capsule
c. Renal corpuscle
d. Loop of Henle
e. Distal convoluted tubule

Answer: b

The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron. The nephron can be divided into the glomerulus and uriniferous tubule. The capillary tuft of the nephron is referred to as the glomerulus. Bowman's capsule is a double layered cap surrounding the glomerulus. This is the first portion of the uriniferous tubule. The glomerulus and Bowman's capsule make up the renal corpuscle. Another term for the renal corpuscle is Malpighian corpuscle.

Bowman's capsule leads to the proximal convoluted tubule. The proximal convoluted tubule leads to the loop of Henle. This then leads to the distal convoluted tubule. The distal convoluted tubule then leads to the collecting duct.

3.
Where are podocytes seen?
a. Visceral layer of Bowman's capsule
b. Parietal layer of Bowman's capsule
c. Pedicels
d. Juxtaglomerular cells
e. Macula densa

Answer: a

The inner layer of Bowman's capsule is the visceral layer. It consists of cells called podocytes. The outer layer of Bowman's capsule is the parietal layer. Pedicels are the foot processes on the podocytes. The juxtaglomerular cells secrete renin. The macula densa are specialized cells in the distal convoluted tubule that are sensitive to sodium. The juxtaglomerular cells and macula densa make up the juxtaglomerular apparatus.

4.
What vessel is formed from an aggregation of the glomerular capillaries?
a. Afferent arteriole
b. Efferent arteriole
c. Capillary tuft
d. Peritubular capillaries
e. Vasa recta

Answer: b

The afferent arteriole branches off the interlobular artery. The afferent arteriole supplies blood to the glomerulus. The glomerulus is a capillary tuft. The glomerular capillaries converge to form the efferent arteriole. The peritubular capillaries is a second capillary network which arise after the efferent arteriole. They surround the proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and distal tubule. Vasa recta are the "straight vessels" which arise from some of the efferent arterioles.

5.
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
a. Medulla
b. Lobe
c. Renal columns
d. Nephron
e. Medullary ray

Answer: d

The kidney can be divided into an outer cortex and an inner medulla. A kidney lobe consists of a medullary pyramid, its overlying cortex, and the associated renal column. The renal columns are the tissue in between the pyramids. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney. A region where a portion of the medulla project into the renal cortex are referred to as medullary ray.

6.
Which structure leads to the collecting duct?
a. Glomerulus
b. Bowman's capsule
c. Renal corpuscle
d. Loop of Henle
e. Distal convoluted tubule

Answer: e

The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron. The nephron can be divided into the glomerulus and uriniferous tubule. The capillary tuft of the nephron is referred to as the glomerulus. Bowman's capsule is a double layered cap surrounding the glomerulus. This is the first portion of the uriniferous tubule. The glomerulus and Bowman's capsule make up the renal corpuscle. Another term for the renal corpuscle is Malpighian corpuscle.

Bowman's capsule leads to the proximal convoluted tubule. The proximal convoluted tubule leads to the loop of Henle. This then leads to the distal convoluted tubule. The distal convoluted tubule then leads to the collecting duct.

7.
What cells are sensitive to sodium concentration?
a. Visceral layer of Bowman's capsule
b. Parietal layer of Bowman's capsule
c. Pedicels
d. Juxtaglomerular cells
e. Macula densa

Answer: e

The inner layer of Bowman's capsule is the visceral layer. It consists of cells called podocytes. The outer layer of Bowman's capsule is the parietal layer. Pedicels are the foot processes on the podocytes. The juxtaglomerular cells secrete renin. The macula densa are specialized cells in the distal convoluted tubule that are sensitive to sodium. The juxtaglomerular cells and macula densa make up the juxtaglomerular apparatus.