Histology-World!

 

 

 

Histology Glossary

 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Odontoblast
Cells which produce dentin in the tooth pulp

Olfactory mucosa
Mucosa lining parts of the nasal cavity

Oligodendrocyte
Glial cell in the CNS which wraps around axons to form myelin sheaths

Oocyte
Developing female gamete; immature ovum

Optic disc
The area of the retina that the optic nerve leaves from; responsible for the blind spot

Ora serrata
Junction between the ciliary body and the retina

Organ of Corti
Part of the cochlea; houses the auditory sensory receptors

Organelle
Specialized intracellular structure

Osteoblast
Bone forming cell

Osteoclast
Multinucleated cell which breaks done bone matrix

Osteocyte
Mature bone cell

Osteoid
Bone matrix which is unmineralized

Osteon
Structural unit in mature bone consisting of concentric layers of bone lamellae around the central canal

Ova
Mature female gamete

Oxyntic cell
Also called a parietal cell. Cell found in the stomach which produces hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor

Oxyphilic cell
One of the two main cell types found in the parathyroid gland

Oxytalan fibers
Fibers in the periodontal ligament

Pacinian corpuscle
Mechanoreceptor for pressure

Pampiniform plexus
Venous plexus found in the reproductive system

Paneth cells
Cells with prominent granules found in the deepest part of an intestinal gland

Papillary layer
Superficial layer of the dermis

Parafollicular cells
Cell type in a thyroid follicle which secretes calcitonin; also called a C cells

Parenchyma
The functional portion of an organ

Parakeratinized epithelium
Keratinized epithelium where the cells still have their nuclei

Parietal cell
Also called a oxyntic cell. Found in the stomach; produces HCl and intrinsic factor

Pars convoluta
Distal convoluted tubule

Pars distalis
Anterior lobe of the pituitary

Pars intermedia
Intermediate lobe of pituitary

Pars nervosa
Posterior lobe of pituitary

Pars recta
Proximal straight tubule in the kidney

Pars tuberalis
Portion of adenohypophysis around infundibuluar stem

Pedicel
Foot process of a podocyte

Peg cells
Non-ciliated secretory cells found in the oviduct

Periarterial lymphatic sheath
PALS; cluster of lymphoctes surrounding a central artery of the spleen

Perichondrium
Connective tissue covering which surrounds cartilage

Pericyte
An undifferentiated cell seen in association with some capillaries

Perikaryon
The cell body of a nerve cell

Perimetrium
Covering of the uterus

Perimysium
Connective tissue sheath surrounding muscle fascicles

Perineurium
Connective tissue sheath surrounding nerve fibers

Periodontium
Supporting tissue of the teeth

Periosteum
Connective tisue covering of bone

Peyer's patches
Lymphoid nodules seen in the lamina propria of the large intestine and appendix

Phagocytosis
Form of endocytosis; "cell eating''

Phalangeal cells
Supporting cells of the spiral organ

Pillar cells
Cell type found in the organ of Corti

Pinocytosis
A form of endoctyosis in which fluids enter the cell; 'cell drinking'

Pituicyte
Cell type found in the neurohypophysis

Plasma cell
Cell derived from B lymphoctyes which secretes antibodies

Plasma membrane
The cell membrane

Plasmalemma
The cell membrane

Platelet
Cell fragment in blood which is involved in clotting

Pleomorphic
Having a variety of shapes and sizes

Pneumocyte
Cell of the pulmonary alveoli

Podocytes
Octopus shaped cells which surround glomerular capillaries

Polychromatophilic erythroblast
Immature cell in the development of the red blood cell

Polychromatophilic erythrocyte
Reticulocyte

Polymorph
PMN; neutrophil

Polymorphonuclear leukocyte
PMN; neutrophil

Pores of Kohn
Channels between adjacent alveoli

Portal triad
Seen in the liver; branch of the hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, and bile duct

Predentin
Matrix of dentin

PP cells
Cells of the pancreas which secrete pancreatic polypeptide

Preosteoblast
Osteoprogenitor cell; cell which will differentiate into osteoblast

Presynaptic membrane
Region of a nerve cell abutting the synaptic cleft

Primary follicle
Follicular stage where the primary oocyte is surrounded by cuboidal cells

Primary nodule
Aggregation of small lymphocytes

Primordial follicle
Primitive follicle

Principal cell
1. Parathyroid cell which secretes parathyroid hormone
2. Cell type in the thyroid; follicular cells

Proerythroblast
Immature cell in the development of the red blood cell

Promyelocyte
Primitive cell in granulopoiesis

Prostatic concretions
Corpora amylaceae; eosinophilic bodies seen in the prostate

Proximal convoluted tubule
PCT, part of the nephron

Psammoma body
Concentric whorls seen in choroid plexus, meninges, pineal gland, and some tumors

Pseudopod
Non permanent project of the cytoplasm of a cell

Pseudostratified epithelium
A type of epithelium where all cells touch the basement membrane yet has the appearance of being stratified

Pseudounipolar neuron
Unipolar neuron

Purkinje cells
Cell type in the cerebellum

Purkinje fibers
Specialized cardiac muscle fibers inolved in the transmission of the impulse from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles

Pyramidal cells
Neurons in the cerebral cortex with a cell body shaped like a pyramid

Histology hint from Sarah Bellham: If you are studying histology or involved in health care, you need a medical dictionary. You may as well get one as early in your career as possible to maximize the benefit. I recommend: Stedman's Medical Dictionary or Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 30th Edition.